On 21 September 2015, a traditional ruler (Chief) in Mbengwi, Cameroon submitted a 12-pages OFFGO report to the Governor of the North West region, Cameroon. The Sub-Division Mbengwi covers 29 villages, on and its land surface is estimated at 80,000ha. With this report, OFFGO recorded human rights violations and abuse of power by the local authorities, and transferred all available data to the relevant higher Cameroonian authorities. Some elements in this OFFGO report (over intensified grazing, poor pasture management, erosion, farmer-grazier conflict) has been reported before, more precisely in 2012 by the World Bank. The situation between then and now has not been changed. The World Bank identifies poor pasture management as one of the core reasons of the farmer-grazier conflicts. Although various stakeholders have a say in this management (local administration, traditional rulers, farmers, graziers), the 2015 OFFGO report identifies the head of the local administration as one of the key players.
The people of Mbengwi, known as ‘Meta’, are characterized with a common ancestry. Their presence has already been registered in the German colonial era (late 1800s/early 1900s), and the available data on native human settlements date back to the 13th century. Their politico-administrative association (presently MECUDA) has been created in 1963. The Meta society counts 29 villages, but ironically 31 Chiefs (what is, according to 10 Chiefs, the result of attempted land grabbing by the local administration). Mbengwi comprises 9 Mbororo settlements. OFFGO’s members see the position of Mbororo as indigenous people, and as a one (coherent with view in OCHCR E/C.12/CMR/CO/2-3), and promotes the development of the settlements. OFFGO’s members are however worried about the use of violence by some Mbororo citizens against Meta villagers. Based on recorded audio and video fragments, (S/C, due to privacy reasons) the settlers are forcing communities to leave their ancestral lands, and are threatening with violence and killings.
The OFFGO report followed the submission of a petition from 400+ farmers and 10 traditional rulers about intensive and ongoing violent conflicts between farmers and graziers in Mbengwi. Additionally to this petition, traditional rulers in Nyen (P1/P2) and Tudig wrote the Mbengwi agro-pastoral commission, which constitutes local administrators dealing with land use matters, about illegalities in land allocation for permanent grazing in Mbengwi. The allocation of land for grazing activities is regulated by ‘Decree No 78/263 of July, 3 1978 to establish the terms and conditions for settling farmer-grazier disputes’. The agro-pastoral commission first of all discusses the allocation of rural areas to agriculture and grazing, and this to the needs of the inhabitants and demands of development. This interpretation is well accepted at the level of farmer and grazier organisations and associations, including by the Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association (Mboscuda) in Cameroon. This association empowers the Mbororo community to secure their rights as valued active citizens in Cameroon.
With the submission of the farmer-grazier report in September 2015, the authors seek the promotion and protection of the rights of all land users in Mbengwi, which includes farmers and graziers. The traditional rulers and the farmers reported cases of abuse of power, harassment, intimidation and land grabbing by the local administration in Mbengwi. To report these problems to a higher authority falls within the scope of what human rights defenders do. According to the UN, the term “Human rights defender” is used to describe people who, individually or with others, act to promote or protect human rights. Human rights defenders seek the promotion and protection of civil and political rights as well as the promotion, protection and realization of economic, social and cultural rights.
After a follow-up meeting in October 2015 between a traditional ruler, our OFFGO President J. Cappelle (Belgium) and the Governor of the NW region, the Governor transferred the report to the Senior Divisional Officer of Momo. The Governor requested a proper investigation.
The Senior Divisional Officer organized an investigative meeting on 21 January 2016. It covered several land conflict matters, including a farmer-grazier conflict in Tudig. This conflict was reported in the OFFGO report. OFFGO provided guidance and legal support to the Council of the Tudig village in relation to this particular farmer-grazier conflict. Besides a representative of the Senior Divisional Officer, up to 15 local elements of the local administration (Delegates), as well as the Divisional Officer were present.
Shortly after this meeting, series of intimidations and harassments took place, targeting several members of OFFGO. During this investigative meeting, the Divisional Officer threatened with administrative actions against members of the farmers group OFFGO, with a focus on its President and Vice-President. In a letter from 15 February 2016 to the Governor of the NW region, the traditional ruler of Tudig complained about these threats against the village and our OFFGO President.
Shortly before and after this investigative meeting, our President received several judicial summons, both by the Mbengwi Gendarmerie, of which one covered an arrest warrant. Although no arrest took place, the Mbengwi Gendarmerie cautioned us constructively. The commandant in charge of the Gendarmerie reminded us about our rights and duty to communicate freely, but that some elements of the local administration and judicial system are trying to use their powers to arrest and detain us for exercising our rights. And on the 8th of March 2016, our OFFGO President got summoned by the Police Commissioner of Mbengwi, allegedly upon request of the Divisional Officer. The Police revealed a plan to remove Mr Cappelle from the region or the country, upon initiative from the Divisional Officer, as a result of his September 2015 report and support to traditional rulers, farmers and graziers. The investigation resulted in a Police letter to the higher authorities (No. 0053/SNS/MBE. 2/VOL 1/PS89, available at [S/C]), with the message that our OFFGO President poses no threat to Cameroonian national security.
What was expected to be the end of a period of administrative harassments, our President Mr Cappelle received a summon from the Gendarmerie of Momo on 25 April 2016. During the investigation that took place on May 5 2016, the Gendarmerie informed him about a complaint from Mr Baba Danpullo, about Mr Cappelle’s activities in Esu and Big Babanki (both in the North West region of Cameroon) in relation to a matter of land use by Mr Danpullo. Although the presumption of innocence and a fair trial are core fundamental rights, the Gendarmerie of Fundong already made final conclusions before any investigation took place. Indeed, in Gendarmerie report No 106/EM/CIE/DDG/4 du 20/3/2016 (available at [S/C]), the Gendarmerie of Fundong accused Mr Cappelle of attempted murder on billionaire Baba Danpullo. The Gendarmerie made this decision without seeing Mr Cappelle or his lawyers. No investigation took place. The Gendarmerie of Fundong transferred its findings to the NW Gendarmerie, in a ‘bulletin de renseignement’, who on its turn communicated it to the Gendarmerie of Momo.
Mr Cappelle’s right to justice has been violated and denied. Access to justice is a core fundamental human right. Although the Gendarmerie of Momo planned to start its investigation on May 11 2016, the OFFGO President got arrested on May 10 2016, detained in a Yaounde prison cell and removed from the country. His fundamental right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty has not been respected. It is worth noting that our OFFGO president has never been to Esu (contrary to the accusations in the Fundong gendarmerie report), and that OFFGO has set up an initial cooperation with a group of farmers in Big Babanki, with a focus on sharing knowledge on financial management of pig farming. These are non-violent actions, and fall within the development agenda of OFFGO.
OFFGO managed to receive a copy of internal communication between the chef of staff at the Belgian embassy in Cameroon and the administration of the Foreign Affairs Department in Brussels. A first communication (P1/P2) dates from 10 April 2016. The Cameroonian security department accuses, in its call with the Belgian embassy, our OFFGO President of incitement of the youth. The security department seems not to have been properly informed about Mbengwi Police report No. 0053/SNS/MBE. 2/VOL 1/PS89, with the conclusive message that our OFFGO President poses no threat to the Cameroonian national security. No investigation took place between 8 March (date of Police report) and 10 April 2016 (date of mail). According to the Belgian embassy, the call was made one week earlier, in the week of 28 March 2016. This is a few days after the transferred Gendarmerie Fundong report to the Gendarmerie of the NW region. Based on this simple phone call, and without any investigation, the Belgian embassy subsequently allowed the Cameroonian security department to proceed with a suggested plan to remove our President, as human rights defender, from the country. During the arrest and detention, the Belgian embassy deliberately refused proper consular protection, although it acknowledged on May 13 2016 that he got removed from the country for his activism. It was only on the last day of detention that the Belgian embassy took its first, but limited, initiatives on the matter.
Shortly after the removal from the country, up to 200 farmers marched peacefully to Mbengwi centre, some for more than 3 hours in the rain. They protest against the removal of our OFFGO President and the harassments by the local administration. The harassments against the farmers group continued… On 26 May 2016, the Mbengwi Divisional Officer ordered the destruction of OFFGO’s properties, the arrest of OFFGO administrators and farmers, and the complete destruction of the Tudig community farm. Ironically, it is this Divisional Officer that has been accused by hundreds of farmers and tens of traditional rulers of land grabbing and abuse of power. On July 16 2016 and February 2 2017, it further resulted in the arrest of other OFFGO administrators, including of the representative of the traditional ruler of Tudig (Vincent Awazi). On July 16 2016, the bailiff of the Mbengwi court of First Instance used falsified signed convocations as unlawful tactic to arrest two OFFGO farmers. On February 2 2017, the Mbengwi State Counsel tried to arrest and detain the Vice-President of OFFGO and transferred him to court, what would take place on February 8 2017. At court, no case against him was on the court role. Although he has been arrested, and is out on bail, he has never been informed about any charges.
At the same day of arrest of the representative of the traditional ruler in Tudig, a group of 5 armed (machetes, traditional guns) aggressors entered his village, Tudig, and destroyed property (farms, fences, houses), and intimidated farmers and graziers. They also threatened villagers in a neighboring village (Acha). It has not been their first attempt. Some of them entered the villagers in September and November 2016, and demolished parts of the community farm of Tudig. Their objective is the forced eviction of OFFGO supporters. The Tudig Village Council filed a complaint at the Police of Mbengwi, including the names of the attackers. More attacks followed in 2017 and 2018, of which the last one took place in August 2018.
Finally, in April 2018, OFFGO’s lawyer and OFFGO’s President received death threats.